Aggression by Acid

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In developing countries it is much more directed against women as a consequence of religious and cultural beliefs as in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kenya.

The aggressions by acid happen in any country of the planet. The first known case in the world was that of Ameneh Bahrami, an Iranian woman who was attacked by her sentimental partner fled to Spain after surviving the burn and from there filed a criminal complaint against her attacker; which won and according to the laws of their country, where the law of the Talion (eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth) is applied, that is, she should do the same to her aggressor; international pressure led her to reflect, and finally she did not achieve more than an act of revenge and more violence.

There is a difference between the developed countries and the developing countries. In the first, the causes most related to this type of violence are: the abuse of alcohol, delinquency and drugs, marginalized social classes and ethnic minorities (84%), already affect women over 40 and men 67%

In developing countries it is much more directed against women as a consequence of religious and cultural beliefs as in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kenya. In Bangladesh, it is one of the most densely populated and poorest countries, about 100 cases are reported each year, with a male-female ratio of 0.37: 1 this attack on women is the result of punishment or retribution for unsatisfactory dowries due to disputes between families. In response, the Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) has been created to fight for its decline, provide legal support and pressure for health care.

In Colombia, the first case that the Foundation attended was in 1997, it produced a great indignation in the entire work team and the reconstruction process began, which was very difficult due to the severity of the consequences, at that time it was thought that it was a case isolated, but little by little they were more frequent and in greater numbers; Colombia was aware of this type of violence when one of the candidates for the national beauty contest was allegedly assaulted by another of the contestants.

Recognizing that it was no longer an isolated phenomenon, in 2012, the Foundation brought together nine of the survivors of acid aggression in its headquarters and heard their testimony; no one forgets the pain he felt, none received the appropriate treatment and in no case did he even stop the aggressor. From that meeting on, they committed themselves to be the visible face of violence against women in the country, which triggered a series of reactions at the national level, both from the media and from all sectors of the State. This led to the fact that when Natalia Ponce de León was attacked, not only did the entire country react but that there was already experience in the treatment of this type of burn.

La Unidad de Quemados del Hospital Simón Bolívar elaboró en conjunto con la Secretaría de Salud de Bogotá, el Protocolo de primer respondiente para la atención de urgencia; posteriormente en conjunto con la Fundación del Quemado se elaboró la Guía de Atención Integral para Quemaduras Químicas, y liderados por el Ministerio de Salud se elaboró la Ruta de Atención Integral en Salud RIAS, para las quemaduras por agresión química.

Si bien es cierto que al principio este tipo de agresión se incrementó porque mucho copiaron la forma de violentar a las mujeres, la presión de la sociedad civil y del tercer sector condujo a decretar el 25 de noviembre como el Día de la No Violencia contra la Mujer, la Ley Natalia Ponce de León que entre otras aumenta las penas hasta 40 años al tipificar el ataque como intento de homicidio, al Decreto 2733 de 2012 que tiene como objetivo la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y ofrece beneficio tributario a quien las emplee y la Circular 08 de 2017, Superintendencia de Salud, que decreta la obligatoriedad de prestación de atención integral desde la urgencia hasta la reintegración social a las víctimas por ataque con químicos.

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